The Cardiogenesis Marker Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means of evaluating proteins involved in heart development. This kit contains enough antibody to perform two western blot experiments per primary antibody.
Specificity / Sensitivity
NKX2.5 (E1Y8H) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total NKX2.5 protein. GATA-6 (D61E4) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total GATA-6 protein. MEF2C (D80C1) XP® Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of total MEF2C protein. α-Actinin (D6F6) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total α-actinin protein. Troponin I (D6F8) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total troponin I protein. Troponin T (Cardiac) Antibody detects endogenous levels of total cardiac Troponin T protein. Connexin 43 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total connexin 43. This antibody does not cross-react with other connexins.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Pro67 of human NKX2.5 protein, residues near the amino terminus of human GATA-6 protein, a region surrounding Met182 of human MEF2C protein, residues surrounding Phe316 of human α-actinin-1 protein, or residues near the amino terminus of human troponin I protein. Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region surrounding Pro69 of human cardiac troponin T protein or residues of human connexin 43. Polyclonal antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Cardiogenesis is a complex developmental event involving numerous transcription factors. NKX2.5 is a member of the NKX homeobox transcription factor family, which plays an essential role in heart development and is among the earliest factors expressed in the cardiac lineage in developing embryos. Mutations in NKX2.5 are associated with several congenital heart conditions, such as atrial defect with atrioventricular conduction defects (ASD-AVCD) and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (1,2). GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (3-5). GATA-6 plays a critical role in endoderm development and knock out of GATA-6 is embryonic lethal due to defects in formation of the heart tube and a failure to develop extraembryonic endoderm (6). MEF2C is a member of the MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) family of transcription factors. The MEF2 family members were originally described as muscle-specific DNA binding proteins that recognize MEF2 motifs found within the promoters of many muscle-specific genes (7,8). α-Actinin was first recognized as an actin cross-linking protein. The α-actinin protein interacts with a large number of proteins involved in signaling to the cytoskeleton, including those involved in cellular adhesion, migration, and immune cell targeting (9). The muscle isoforms 2 and 3 (ACTN2, ACTN3) localize to the Z-discs of striated muscle and to dense bodies and plaques in smooth muscle (9). Troponin, working in conjunction with tropomyosin, functions as a molecular switch that regulates muscle contraction in response to changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Troponin consists of three subunits: the Ca2+-binding subunit troponin C (TnC), the tropomyosin-binding subunit troponin T (TnT), and the inhibitory subunit troponin I (TnI) (10). Assays for measuring serum concentrations of cardiac muscle TnT (cTNT), as well as cTnI, have been reported for analyzing cardiac injury. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a member of the large family of gap junction proteins, which assemble as a hexamer and are transported to the plasma membrane to create a hemichannel that can associate with hemichannels on nearby cells to create cell-to-cell channels. Gap junction communication is important in development and regulation of cell growth. Phosphorylation of Cx43 is important in regulating assembly and function of gap junctions (11,12).